Appalachian Hardwood Forest Tree Species

Yellow Birch

(Betula alleghaniensis)

one of the more long-lived hardwoods, found in AHF sites, but also in other locations, often with hemlock.

American Beech

(Fagus grandifolia)

once one of the most common and widespread forest hardwoods, beech is increasingly subject to a canker which arrived here from Europe in the early 20th century; few beech now reach large size.

American Elm

(Ulmus americana)

far less common than previously in the region’s forests; Dutch Elm Disease, now present locally for more than half a century, has killed most of the large elms.

Balck Cherry

(Prunus serotina)

scattered throughout AHF sites, sometimes reaching more than 40 cm in diameter.

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(Tilia americana)

one of the marker species; considered to have “conservation significance”; can reach more than a metre in diameter although trees this size are rare; often has two trunks, with little branching below the crown; large basswood frequently have cavities and become den trees for birds or mammals.


(Jugulans cinerea)

another AHF marker; widespread in the watershed; now being threatened by a canker, first detected here in 1997, which has devastated butternut stands in other parts of eastern North America.

White Ash

(Fraxinus americana)

an AHF marker; widespread in the watershed and widely used for tool handles such as axes, shovels and hammers.


(Ostrya virginiana)

an AHF marker, aka Eastern Hophornbeam; small tree seldom reaching more than 30 cm in diameter; very hard wood; fruit hang in clusters similar to hops.

Sugar Maple

(Acer saccharum)

probably the most common tree in AHF sites.

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Other Local Tree Species 

Red Oak

(Quercus rubra)

found in scattered locations in the Meduxnekeag watershed

Eastern Hemlock

(Tsuga canadensis)

less commonly found than previously; considered to be a conservation concern; hemlock is one of the longest-lived conifers; most of the original growth hemlock in the Meduxnekeag watershed were cut in the late 19th to early 20th centuries for their bark, to be used in the local leather tanning industry.

Black Willow

(Salix nigra)

 uncommonly scattered in the watershed, usually on stream banks or other areas of wet soil; capable of becoming a very large tree; roots play valuable role in erosion control.

Northern White Cedar

(Thuja occidentalis)

 found scattered in many forest types, often streambanks and in wetland areas, but sometimes in uplands; a tree of conservation concern whose numbers are considered to be in decline provincially.

Red Maple

(Acer rubrum)